Environmentalism in Faeland
Faeland (and especially Ríocht Fíl) is a leading country in support of environmental issues and conservationism, in line with its socialist principles. Since the 60's especially, the Kingdom of Faeland has halted much urban sprawl and declared vast swathes of territory to be closed to development and made national preserves and parks. Where cities and towns fall inside these boundaries, nearly all have restricted growth allowances.
In 2004, the Kingdom of Faeland finally convinced its fellow states to cede environmental protection authority to the federal government, and all environmental bureaus were elevated to departments within the Directory's Bureau of the Environment. Along with privileges akin to a department of the interior, this makes the creation of parks and promotion of environmental issues a federal province, outruling state-level institutions and prerogatives. Since 2004, a "Second Greening" has taken place across the V.F., as the other Member States catch up to the Kingdom of Faeland. The number of national preserves and parks in non-Kingdom states has nearly doubled.
Based on historical maps, reforestation has been initiated all over the island, bringing back some of the scenic beauty of long deforested countryside.
Within Faeland, there are various types of natural conservations (Lesre of Faeland). These are:
- Federal Parks, which may or may not include restricted internal human habitation and allow camping and other such activities in the natural places*.
- Federal Conservations, which may or may not include enclaves of habitation, but generally allow a more restricted human traffic limited to scientific study, non-mechanized recreation, and licensed hunting for population control.
- Federal Preserves, which allow almost no human impact and, in many cases, are attempts to let nature restore itself to create healthy ecosystems. Typically, preserves are the youngest of the "Commons" as they are called, and are typically attempts to roll back the negative impact of human overuse or exploitation of an area.
Although some remote communities and farmers have complained, none of the Lesre are fenced, in order that animals may migrate freely. Where predatory animals venture out of restricted areas and endanger humans and/or farm animals, hunting is permitted.
*Parks should not be confused with Federal Sites, which are cultural/historical in nature, and administered by the Ministry of the Insides.
"EARPs": Extinct Animals Regeneration Programs
Scientists of the Faelish Foundation for Recreating Extinct Species (FFRES) have used DNA from bones in museums to recreate the aurochs. They plan to return this animal to the forests of Faeland. The project has gained the support of the Faelish Bureau of the Environment. They plan research on ancient preserved DNA. Other research projects have extracted DNA over the past twenty years and their results published in such periodicals as Nature and National Geographic. Scientists believe that modern genetics and biotechnology make recreating an animal almost identical to the aurochs possible. They say this research will lead to examining the causes of the extinction of the aurochs, and help prevent a similar occurrence with other domestic animals.
In a similar program, Bovos Project is trying to DNA-sequence breeds of primitive cattle to find gene sequences that match those found in aurochs samples. The modern cattle would be selectively bred to try to produce the aurochs-type genes in a single animal. "Bovos" selected a number of primitive breeds mainly from Iberia and Italy, such as Sayaguesa Cattle, Maremmana primitivo, Pajuna Cattle, Limia Cattle, Maronesa, Tudanca Cattle and others, which already bear considerable resemblance to the aurochs in certain features. Numerous crossbreed calves have been born already.
The "National L"
The "National L" is the nickname for the Elevated Road System that originally was limited to a few more remote areas of the Fíl.
Beginning in 1987, the Kingdom of Faeland enacted legislation that sought to eliminate a major problem for fauna within its various parks and preserves. Where roads bisected these places, they were to be elevated so that animals could migrate freely underneath them, and to reduce the noise pollution for the animals. It is a long and costly process, but is gaining popularity nationwide. Efforts are being made to combine this legislation with carbon-reduction legislation. Some have argued that the roads should be re-routed around the parks entirely, while others suggest making electric rails to reduce carbon and noise entirely. Both plans are cost-inhibiting, but are being developed.
Environmentalism in the Law
Main article: Law 129-TT
On June 13, 2009 the Diet passed legislation that granted legal personhood rights to all great apes. The act sent ripples out of the region and across the country, producing public support for the rights of great apes and the shutdown of nearly all remaining ape research facilities still functioning in the country. On July 30, 2009 the Directory set forth resolutions urging all Faeland's Member States to grant the primates the rights to life and liberty. As approved, the various laws state that they "will ban harmful experiments on apes and make keeping them for circuses, television commercials, or filming illegal under the penal code of the General Government of the Federated States of Faeland".
Granting legal rights afforded to humans to non-humans is nothing new. In the majority of the world, corporations are recognized as legal persons and are granted many of the same rights humans enjoy, the right to sue, to vote and to freedom of speech. In the past, animals were often brought to trial as legal persons. Great apes meet all the standards set out for personhood in Faeland: self-awareness; comprehension of past, present, and future; the ability to understand complex rules and their consequences on emotional levels; the ability to choose to risk those consequences, a capacity for empathy, and the ability to think abstractly.
Main article: Law 460-MC
Faeland has joined several other nations in taking the lead in legally declaring the sovereignty of nature and investing it with "inalienable rights", as one critic has called them. A Faelish law passed in 2012 defines nature or "Earth" as "the collective living organism of which humans in general are a part and Faels are a particular," and declares in no uncertain terms that earth and its life systems "combine human communities and ecosytems" as members of a legal household specified in the law.
The law was sponsored by the Faelish Green Party and shipping magnate Kjetil Schønhoug of the D.R.A. and activist/artist Daniel Arango of the Holy K Movement. The legal language proclaims the strengthening of the Bureau of the Environment, which will function as a prosecuting office in defense of an otherwise unrepresented "natural person". This law was promulgated as a direct amendment to the Organic Law.