Ríocht Fíl

From Anglo-American Cyclopaedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ríocht Fíl
Fíl, Kingdom, The Midlands
(Kingdom of Faeland)
Fil-flag.png
Flag of the Kingdom of Faeland
Fil-Arms.png
Arms of Fíl
Motto: Obliti Privatorum Publica Curate
(Manage the public affairs as if you had no private interests.)
Anthem: ####
Ríocht Fíl in Faeland
Modern Ríocht Fíl
Capital:
de jure:

de facto:

Cathír na Fil Alntlöán

Largest City: Cathír na Fil
Official Languages: Faelish, English
Demonym: Fáel, Faelish
Government: Constitutional Monarchy
Sasarg: Extle Hecatl
Xanpai: Vigiás
Celer: Miriam Brenner
National Assembly:
Last Election: April 24, 2011
Formation:
Independence:

Constitution:

1925

1955

Area:
Total: 33,338 km²
12,871.87 sq. mi.
Water (%): 8.1
Population:
2009 Estimate: 5,975,232
2006 Census 5,464,361
Currency: Euro
Time Zone: UTC+2
Internet TLD: .fe

This article is about the modern Page of the V.F. For other uses, see Kingdom of Faeland (disambiguation).

Fíl, also known officially as Ríocht Fíl (translated as "Kingdom of Faeland") is a country in the Atlantic on the island of Faeland. It is a federal democracy and constitutional binary monarchy, comprising historic administrative divisions and lands directly administered by the government on behalf of the crown. From the northwest clockwise, Fíl shares borders with Dhíall, Vhallonesia, Argentau, New Norwich, Lito, Valaduria, and Vila do Infante. It also has maritime borders with the Aroës. At 33,338 km² (12,871.87 sq. mi.), the Kingdom is the largest country in Faeland, covering more than half of the island's area. Of all the states of the V.F., it shares the most borders with the other states. It is also the most populous nation with over two million people. It extends across the whole of the Great Faelish Plain, incorporating a wide range of environments from rocky mountains in the west to central forested lowlands to the eastern alluvial plains. Fíl has Faeland's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources. It has the country's largest forest cover and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the island's freshwater.

The nation's history began with that of the early neolithic cultures, who absorbed later Celtic culture. For much of its recent history it has been subject to colonization and internal strife related to it.

The Kingdom of Faeland was established by the Sublime Edict on 5 November 1955 and is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Republic of Faeland, whose steady collapse culminated in the outbreak of civil war.

The legal name of the state (in English) is the "Kingdom of Faeland", but it is known colloquially as the Midlands or the Highlands or, more formally, "Fíl" (Fáel). Originally, the two former terms would have referred to specific geographic portions of the country, but today are largely interchangeable (especially outside the country) due to the geopolitical landscape of the island as a whole.

Fíl is a federal state comprising a semi-elected double monarch ( Faelish: Vŭzel Herrien) with limited authority over a central legislature. The various administrative divisions hold great authority internally and in some cases operate nearly autonomously, though legally all the divisions are equal.

Due to its generous approach to autonomy, there are many communities that, while they could become autonomous Member States, choose to remain within the kingdom. It should be noted, however, that in most cases cultural ties are strong despite historical and political autonomy.

Etymology

The country's original name was the Richt Aleann (English: Kingdom of Aln) (or at least that is the cultural claim of the current polity), a medieval state populated mostly by Faels, with some foreign elements among the nobility. However, this proper name became less prominent in its later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants the "Richt Felean" which could be translated as "Kingdom of Faels" or "Kingdom of Faeland". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is often denoted as the Kingdom of Aln by modern historiographers.

Today, the name of the country and its people are sometimes confusing to outsiders, but citizens rarely have difficulty distinguishing between Faels and Faelanders. See also: Demonyms of the Faelish People.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Fíl

Fíl is the largest country in Faeland. There are multiple UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Fíl, dozens of UNESCO biosphere reserves, 57 national parks and 104 nature reserves. Faeland has a moderate natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, natural gas, ores and other mineral resources.

Regions

The R.F. can be viewed through a kaleidoscope of regional divisions for various purposes. Since the creation of the Palavery Office of Nomenclature in 1990, some official regional schemes have become obsolete as administrative boundaries. Many historical affiliations persist, however, and continue to be widely referenced.

Informal and overlapping regional designations are often used to describe the four broad cultural areas of the Ríocht Fíl, namely:

  • Hesion, Westfaelia or The Highlands - geographically distinct but culturally similar: the Rhomine highlands through the western foothills to the Atlantic coast. It forms a "semi-Cisleithania" to the Kingdom's core, according to one politician;
  • The Midlands or "The Bowl"- the interior of the Rhomine Caldera encircling the elevated massifs and hills of the north (the Almuhr Highlands) -which rise parallel to the Fault- as well as the Great Faelish Plain of the south (the alluvial lowlands which flow east through the Trifluvian Basin into the ocean);
  • East Country - the western coastal plains and foothills surrounding Mt. Cernat;
  • The Lowlands - an exonym for Çedizh (Eng.: Cedesia), being generally the uplands and river valleys of the southwest coast, the watersheds of the Dole and Fork rivers.

The Midlands in this sense are a part of the Kingdom of Faeland. "Midlands", informally used in English and other languages including sometimes the Faelish language itself, may also mean the whole of the member state of Ríocht Fíl. This example of pars pro toto or synecdoche is similar to the tendency to refer to the Netherlands as "Holland".

Topography

The two widest separated points in Fíl are about 482 km (300 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: the western island of Caesal (which narrowly beats out Sisern Island by a few yards); and the farthest northeast border with Pentapoli, between Frosino and Códini.

The Rhomine Mountains appear often in Faelish art. Note Mt. Ryan in the background beyond the clouds.

Most of Fíl consists of vast stretches of plains that are heavily forested to the west and south and largely given over to agricultural in the north and east, with mountains along the western coast. Fíl possesses 43% of the island's arable land. Mountain ranges are found along the southern and northern borders, such as the Rhomine Mountains; and in the northeastern parts, the Aemili. The Colhani Mountains, rich in mineral resources, forms a southern divide between Fíl and Valaduria, and to some extent Lito.

Fíl has an extensive coastline of over 3,000 km (2,991 mi) along the Atlantic and Bay of Biscay, as well as along the Mor Andidh, Aroëse Gulf, Álta Sea, and Porromar Bay. Fíl's major islands and archipelagos are primarily off the west coast.

Fíl has hundreds of rivers and inland bodies of water providing it with the island's largest surface water resources. The largest and most prominent of Fíl's bodies of fresh water is Lake Athlóa, the island's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious freshwater lake. Athlóa alone contains over one fifth of the island's fresh surface water. Other major lakes include Lake Leonida and Lake Clesthen, two of the largest lakes in Faeland. Pentapoli is close second to Fíl in volume of the total renewable water resources in Faeland. Of the country's rivers, the Verdan is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Faeland, but also because of its major role in Faelish history.

Climate

The size of Fíl and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid insular climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the uppermost mountains and the extreme east. Mountains in the west obstruct the flow of cold air masses from the Atlantic Ocean, while the plain of the midlands and east makes the country open to Biscay and limited continental influences.

Most of Fíl has an insular climate, with medium winters in the outer regions of the country, and more moderate elsewhere.

The coastal part of Fíl on the Bay of Portugal, most notably in the area around Lake Drummargh, possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow.

Flora and Fauna

Typical new growth forest in Fíl

Changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Faeland supports a similar sequence but is composed largely of native species of birch, beech, ash, hawthorn, elm, oak, yew, pine, cherry and apple. Other trees have been naturalized, introduced especially from other parts of Europe (particularly Norway) and North America. Introduced trees include several varieties of pine, chestnut, maple, spruce, sycamore and fir, as well as cherry plum and pear trees. The tallest species are the Douglas firs; two specimens have been recorded measuring 135 feet.

There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Fíl, most native to the island as a whole. A total of 615 animal species have been included in the Protected Earthlings Act.

History

Main article: History of the Kingdom of Faeland

The history of Fíl is, as Winston Churchill put it, "Almost as enigmatic as Russia, and only slightly less odd than Ireland." (This is Churchill sloppily paraphrasing himself. He had said prior: "We have always found the Irish a bit odd. They refuse to be English," and regarding the Russians, "Russia is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma."

The nation of Faeland has existed since the early 20th century as a nation-state. Prior to that, the historical predecessor has most often been claimed to be the Kingdom of Aln. The native Faelish people have never been unified in one political body before (and theoretically still are not, as they have been limited to roughly half of their original island over time). The Kingdom of Aln came the closest, slowly assimilating to native culture and becoming the "High Kingdom" of the island during the Middle Ages, to which other states owed vassalage. Although born of foreign leadership, it has become the historic precedent for Faelish independence.

Despite the aforementioned country's existence, the history of the modern state is extremely short, rooted in the early 20th century through to the present.

Government of Fíl

Composition

Main articles: Government of Fíl, Politics of Fíl

National

One half of the Vŭzel Herrien, the Xanpai (eng. trans. as "Queen") Vigiás

The official capital of the State is Cathír na Fil (also capital of the V.F.), however the Monarchs and most government offices are situated in Althóan.

According to the Sublime Edict of Fíl written by Aodhán II, the country is a composite binary monarchy and a democratic federation, wherein the King-Queen are the head of state and government. The Kingdom is fundamentally structured as a confederation of states and Crown-administered lands, with the "national" government composed of three organs:

  • Confederal: The National Thing, made up of representatives elected from and by the citizenry, enacts nationwide law, has the power of the purse and the power of impeachment of the Celer. The Celer is elected by popular plebiscite for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term). Ministries of the government are composed of the Ministers and their deputies, secretaries, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the Vŭzel Herrien on the recommendation of the Celer (whereas the monarchs ratify the latter upon election by and from the National Thing). The Council of Tribes mediates between and creates the law governing Crown Vassals and their intercourse; the Vŭzel Herrien chair this body.
  • "Royal": The Vŭzel Herrien (lit. "Knot of Peoples" but often "Empery of Faels/Faelands", known outside Faeland as "kings") are the commanders-in-chief of the military, issue edicts, veto select legislative bills before they become law, and by right appoint their own Alnish Council (privy council) and other officers, who administer and enforce law and policy throughout the Kingdom. The Empery furthermore governs all Commons of Faeland directly and are Stewards of the Realm of Faeland. The people and institutions of the Commons are represented by a parliament, the States of Faeland, which is the Vedi (the chamber of peers of the Kingdom) and the co-equal chamber of popular assembly, the Thing of Faels (nominally an assembly but as often as not contains representatives from self-forming districts. Localities (Cities, Towns, Manors) may also elect or recommend Wardens subject to investiture by the Crowns.
  • Judiciary: The Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Supreme Court of Arbitration and lower royal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Royal Council on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unfit. The Judiciary is a function of, but wholly independent from the Royal and Confederal administrations.
Schema showing Ríocht Fíl's government.

Communal

Crown Vassals

See also: Crown Vassal, List of Crown Vassals of Ríocht Fíl

Crown Vassals are the subnational administrative units of Ríocht Fíl. The Kingdom of Faeland comprises 82 of these "counties", including 8 Metropolitan Charters ("republican" Crown Vassals) and one ceremonial Capital Region. These states have equal status before the law and like representation in government. Each differs in the degree of autonomy it exercises per its unique relationship to the crown.

During the restoration of the monarchy in the 1950's, where various territories still desired peers or if other political entities expressed legitimate claims to local rule, crown vassals were officially established. Among these are various forms and relationships with the central authority, but all are considered of equal rank except and enjoy unique priveleges with the Vŭzel Herrien. These "counties" are represented in government by the Council of Tribes, and local government and administration is universally the province of local citizens. The crown government is expected by custom, however, to intervene at the behest of the people if a peer or government is unfit or unwanted.

Some cities were granted historical charters and in those cases have retained their status (often styled as "republics") by the grace of the monarchs.

Whatever lands are not incorporated into Crown Vassals are the Commons of Faeland (see below).

A map showing the administrative divisions of the Ríocht Fíl.
Republics and Chartered Cities (Metropolitan Charters)

The Kingdom recognizes non-feudal vassal states subject to the king. Each has its own constitution, leader, and government. Republics and Chartered Cities are allowed to establish their own official language or dialect alongside Faelish but are represented by the royal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities and/or cultural or historical entities.

Capital Region

The official capital of the Kingdom is Cathír na Fil. Because the city is also the capital of the Valanian Federate, its limits are designated the Capital Region and is administered by its own autonomous government. Although held in condominium with the General Government it is legally territory of the Kingdom of Faeland. As such it was created a ceremonial Crown Vassal by the first modern King of Faeland. Traditionally the Kings of Faeland made their home in Althóan and continue to do so today, making it the de facto capital of the Kingdom, leaving Cathír largely to the government of the Member States.

Commons of Faeland

Main article: Commons of Faeland

Where legitimate successors to defunct titles could not be found -that is where no Crown Vassals could be restored following the war- lands defaulted to the stewardship of the king. These lands are called Commons, administered by Wardens of the King where no local township exists and extending to unincorporated rural areas. However, in many other cases small local nobles were able to show competence but had lost their lieges in the fires of war and greatness of time. These Lesser Nobles were given the option to retain their lands in deed full, not as gifts of the crown, in return for oaths of fealty. Since the rebirth of the Kingdom in the 1950s, the Crown has seen fit to replace its wardens in various regions and towns that have requested more control and autonomy. The original intent was to reinvigorate and add fresh blood to the noble class, and establish pretense that new nobility could always be found. Thus as gifts many were also given estates and titles by patent of the King. It did occur often, however, that towns or cities requested simple autonomy with a lord-mayor and city council system. Thus the Commons of Faeland are administered through the king's intermediary wardens and through what could be thought of as minor crown vassals (having less voice in the confederal system as the king's personal creations), be they counts, dukes, marquise, or what have you.

Fig. 33 A Lesser Dein with his Receipt

There has been political debate on the supposed oppression of these "Lesser Deins" by excluding them from seats at the Council of Tribes. When the Vodschtek Suxach (Grand Duke of Suxach) ___ questioned their restriction in session, King Aodhán II responded: "Do you want to pack this assembly with all my friends?" The hall erupted in laughter as the King had ably defended his position by demonstrating the check to both his power and theirs by his keeping certain nobles under his direct care. Acknowleging this, the Vodschtek went further and demanded that it be confirmed by the king that no Crown Vassal could be removed from its relationship to the crown and be made a lesser. It is has thus been since constitutional practice to consider the crown vassals as legally entitled to protection from the monarch's direct control. Thus were their guarantees of internal autonomy in fact strengthened by the King's creation of his own new class.

True to Aodhán II's intent, since he died in 1973 his successors have expressed no interest in elevating the lesser nobles to a de facto state of equality as the Crown Vassals. In interviews the Aodhán IV has said "I like to think of the so-called lessers (sic. Deins) as community projects. For example, we create the Mayor of a town baronet and give him and his area some legal tools and economic privileges to try and get something happening in their neighborhood. Something they can be a part of and help build. The dream is that some of these little incubators grow into something they can be proud of...with evidence for all the world to see, that their monarch has been watching and helping them along."

Local Government

Local administration varies widely throughout the kingdom depending upon the jurisdiction under which the municipality falls. Each Crown Vassal has its own traditions and institutions governing local authorities (often similar but for major distinctions between peer-ruled vassals and "republican" vassals - which are often autonomous cities or county-city mergers). On the other hand, local-level government in the Commons has virtually no legal prescription other than royal review. In some cases, villages and districts run quite simply with small and unincorporated town hall style government, whereas larger cities have more modern administrative apparatuses. Throughout the Commons districts, however, the King is represented by Wardens. Typically these wardens are locally elected, sometimes appointed, but all are subject to royal investiture for legitimacy.

Foreign Relations

The Kingdom of Faeland is recognized in international law as the successor state of the former Kingdom of Aln (the only modern state recognized as a successor to a medieval state that ceased to exist centuries before the current state). Fíl complies with the international commitments of the Federated States. As of 2009, it maintains diplomatic relations with 171 countries and has 44 embassies, mostly serving economic purposes. Foreign policy is wholly determined by the General Government of Faeland, not the Kingdom.

Military

Main article: Armed Forces of Ríocht Fíl

The Fíln military is divided into regiments by traditional precedent. There are six regiments, including one co-fielded with New Norwich. In 2006, the military had 19,700 personnel on active duty. Service is completely voluntary, although the King is entitled to conscript in emergencies.

Fíl, like the rest of Faeland, does not possess nuclear weapons. Its naval defense is under the care of the General Government of the Valanian Federate, specifically provided by Falx and Lito.

The country has a minor indigenous arms industry, importing most of its military equipment with only a few weapons designed and produced domestically.

Official government military spending for 2008 was $78 million.

Demographics

A rally against the G8 by Faels in Tragh. Faels are known for their left-wing politics and anti-capitalist tendencies.

Ethnic Faels comprise 89.8% of the country's population; however the Kingdom is also home to several sizeable minorities including Irish, English, and Dutch, among others. Population is densest along the eastern coast and around the capital. 73% of the population lives in urban areas while 27% in rural ones. That said, many farmers work the fields and return to their townhomes at night, making distinction between the two difficult. The total population is 5,963,431 people as of 1 January 2010.

In 2009 279,906 migrants arrived to the to the Kingdom, of which 63% came from E.U. countries. The number of Faelish emigrants steadily declined from 59,000 in 2000 to 23,000 in 2009. There are also an estimated 100,000 illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Fíl. Roughly 4.5 million ethnic Faels live in Fíl and about half a million more live in other states of the F.S.F., mostly in New Norwich.

The Fíln Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all citizens. As of 2009, the average life expectancy was 72.11 years for males and 73.03 years for females. The biggest factor contributing to the relatively low male life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes (e.g., alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crime). As a result of the lasting effect of high casualties during the civil war, the gender imbalance remains to this day and there are 0.75 males to every female.

Fíl's birth-rate is dead average to that of most European countries (9.90 per 1000), while the death rate is slightly higher (10.92 per 1000). However, the government predicts that by 2011 the death rate will equal the birth rate due to increase in fertility and decline in mortality.

Language

Main article: Faelish Language

The population of Ríocht Fíl speaks two languages predominantly: Faelish and English. According to the 2002 census, 46% speak Faelish daily, followed by English. The rest speak mainly English, followed by Faelish. These are the only official state languages, but the Constitution gives the administrative regions the right to make their native language co-official next to Faelish and English.

Despite its wide dispersal, the Faelish language is largely homogeneous throughout the Kingdom, excepting two major distinctions: High and Low Faelish. Faelish is the most geographically widespread language of Faeland and the most widely spoken native language. It belongs to the Foidelic language family. Written examples of Old Faelish are attested from the 8th century onwards.

The Faelish Language Center says a quarter of the island's scientific literature is published in Faelish. It is also applied as a means of coding and storage of knowledge— 60–70% of all the island's information is published in the English and Faelish languages. Faelish is one of the official languages of the F.S.F.

Religion

Main article: Religion in Ríocht Fíl

Vianism, Christianity (particularly Christism and Catholicism), and Judaism are Fíl’s dominant religions and legally protected as a part of Fíl's "historical heritage". Estimates of believers widely fluctuate among sources, but most reports put the number of non-believers (atheists and otherwise) in Fíl at 66–78% of the population.

Tracing back to the Arian Christian Alns (Alans, or Alani in Roman sources) of the 10th century, Catholicism is the second-largest Christian denomination in the country; with approximately one million citizens self-identofying. 95% of the registered Christians belong to the Roman Catholic Church while there are a number of smaller Protestant churches. However, the vast majority of believers do not attend church on a regular basis. Smaller Christian denominations such as Orthodox, Huguenots, and various smaller sects exist.

Education

Fíl has a free education system guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution, however an entry to higher education is highly competitive. As a result of great emphasis on classics, literature, and foreign languages in education, Faelish diplomatic, archival, linguistic, archaeology, and sociology studies are generally of a high order.

Since 1993 the 14-year school curriculum has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations. A substantial share of students are enrolled for full pay.

In 2002 state spending for education amounted to 13.6% of GDP, or 23% of consolidated state budget. The government allocates funding to pay the tuition fees within an established quota or number of students for each state institution. In the higher education institutions, students are paid a small stipend and provided with free housing.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Ríocht Fíl

Fíl has a limited market economy with significant natural resources, particularly timber, minerals, and natural gas. Since the turn of the end of the 20th century, greater political stability has bolstered economic growth in Fíl. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, averaging 3% annually. Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to gas or mineral extraction and exports. The average salary in Fíl was $1240 per month in early 2008, up from $930 in 2000. Approximately 8.7% of Fíls live below the national poverty line in 2010, significantly up since 1998 due to the global economic decline. Unemployment in Fíl was at 10.1% in 2007, up from about 8.4% in 1999. The middle class has grown rapidly in the last ten years.

A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 1999 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. Fíl has a flat tax rate of 15 percent for individuals and higher for corporations, depending on their business. According to Bloomberg, Fíl is considered well ahead of most other countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education and science, although industry is significantly hampered by environmental law. The country has more higher education graduates than any other country in Europe save Russia.

The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the east coast and Cathír na Fil regions contributing a very large share of the country's GDP. Another problem is modernization of infrastructure, aging and inadequate after years of being neglected in 1990s; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020, in line with environmental refits required by law.

Agriculture

Main article: Agriculture in Ríocht Fíl

Typical small farms in Fíl.

The total area of cultivated land in Fíl was estimated as 37% in 2005, covering the largest proportion of a state in Faeland. In 1999–2009, Fíl's agriculture demonstrated steady growth, and the country turned from a net grain importer to an exporter, mostly to Africa. The production of meat has declined from 19,000 tons in 1999 to 14,000 tons in 2008, and continues to slow.

This restoration of "yeoman" agriculture was supported by credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and the environment. Large privatized corporate farms, that once were on the verge of wiping out private farming, and still own a significant share of agricultural land, are being dismantled and reapportioned. While large farms concentrate mainly on the production of grain and husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country's yield of potatoes, vegetables, and dairy. Husbandry and concurrent transhumance are still practiced by a large share of upland dwellers.

With access to one of the world's great oceans —the Atlantic— fishing fleets are a major contributor to the island's food supply. The total capture of fish was at 1,391,068 tons in 2005. Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in the recent years, reaching correspondingly $1.2 and $.8 millions in 2008.

Energy

In recent years, Fíl has frequently been described in the media as an "energy midget". The country has natural gas reserves, but they are infrequently used for domestic energy production. Fíl is one of the world's leading natural gas exporters, using the revenues to fund sustainable, clean energy production at home; Fíl prefers to sell to other Member States before shipping internationally. Energy production is not set on a growth model, and it is hoped that high prices and limited availability will help curb overextension and in turn high impact on the environment.

Fíl is the 3rd largest largest renewable energy producer per capita in the world due to the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country. Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in mountains and along big rivers like the Verdan.

Transportation

Railway transport in Fíl is mostly under the control of the state-run Faelish Rails monopoly. The company accounts for over 78.6% of Fíl’s rail lines and handles 59% of the total freight traffic and more than 42% of passenger traffic. The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeds 3,000 miles, nearly double the highway coverage.

As of 2006 Fíl had 1,200 miles of roads, of which 93% were paved. Some of these make up the federal motorway system.

12,000 km of inland waterways in Fíl mostly go by natural rivers or lakes. In the lower (eastern) part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Fíl's capital, Cathír na Fil, is sometimes called "the Port of the Plain", due to its waterway connections to major inland lakes and rivers.

Major sea ports of Fíl include Faeland City on the Alta Sea, West Norwich on the Porromor Bay, Tuischeart on the Celtic Sea. In 2008 the country owned 448 merchant marine ships.

Fíl has 46 airports, with two being international.

Typically, major Fíln cities have well-developed and diverse systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus, tram and subways. Seven Fíl cities have pioneered public bicycle systems, while private cycling is popular everywhere.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Ríocht Fíl

Folk Culture

Main articles: Faelish traditions, Faelish Jokes, Faelish mythology

There are over 16 major ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Fíl. Ethnic Faels with their Celtic and Catholic traditions, Germanics and Vallos, Protestant and Vian, etc. all contribute to the cultural patchwork of the country.

Handicraft, like miniatures, represent an important aspect of folk culture. Ethnic Faelish clothes include capes, caps, hats, vests, and cloaks, often intricately adorned as symbols of rank and social standing. The clothes from parts of southern Fíl reflect the intermingling of cultures.

One visitor said of the propensity of Faels to journaling and documenting, "It is a nation full of scratching nibs, with the sweet-sour of parchment everywhere." And in more recent times, the camera had become an ubiquitous feature as well, until it became less noticeable with the advent of camera-phones, becoming a joke parallel to the Japanese tourist with a camera.

Cuisine

Faelish potato soup with kale, fennel and garnazo beans, influence from the Galician south.

Faelish cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, grain, fruits, and vegetables. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for beer and whiskey drinks. Bread is rather popular in Fíl, compared to the rest of the world. Flavorful soups and stews include are always accompanied by bread. Smithe (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads, as well as cheeses and reductions. Breton and French cuisine have had a long history of impressing the Faelish style of cooking.

Although limited in wine production, the traditional drinks of Fíl are:

  • Beer- Fíl has a long beer brewing tradition, tracing its roots back to the 15th century; Young artisanal brewers are keeping a variety of beer types alive, such as Corl Fel, Trifluvian Pilsners and Facia
  • Mead- made from natural honey only, never farmed

Historically Fíl was a beer producing region. However as wine was increasingly imported from Europe and other regions of Faeland, beer drinking and production slowly began to share its presence with wine. In the 1970s, due to a regional comeback, new breweries started to open and there are now about 60 of them. Whiskey is also produced by a handful of distilleries with excellent results, exporting to Dhíall and Ireland.

Arts

Main article: Art of Ríocht Fíl

Early Faelish painting is represented in vibrant frescoes and mosaics, two genres inherited from Roman presence. As Aln rose to power, Faelish art proliferated.

The Faelish Academy of Arts was created in 1753 by the British and gave Anglo-Fael artists an international role and status. 18th century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting. In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Carolus Maigne and Alexander Megalus.

Music and Dance

A small-town Faelish parade.

Fíl's ethnic groups have distinctive traditions of folk music. Typically, the greatest influence has been Celtic. Faelish classical composers, and in modern times, folk revivalists, are a source of inspiration for a number of popular music styles. Faelish folk songs, as well as patriotic songs, constitute the bulk of repertoire of the national tradition.

Literature

Faelish literature is considered to be among the most developed in the world, containing famous literary works. In the 18th century its development was boosted by the English language works of Michael Leam and Dennis Fergal, and by the early 19th century a modern hybrid tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period, known also as the Golden Age of Faelish Poetry, began with Liam Padraich, who is considered the founder of modern Faelish literature and often described as the "Faelish Shakespeare".

By the 1880s the age of the great novelists was over, while short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Faelish Poetry, when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.

Faelish philosophy has blossomed since the 19th century, when it was defined initially by opposition to British colonialism, advocating independent political and economical models. Prolific proponents of independence included Nicole Seneca (born in the Pentapolis, as it was then known) and Kevin Leareach, founders of classical Faelandism. In its further development Faelish philosophy was always marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Faelish religious philosophy was another major area.

Sports

Along with rugby and basketball, association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Fíl. The national team became the first ever National Champions by winning the Faelish Cup in 1961. In recent years, Faelish football, which downgraded in the 1990's, has experienced a revival. Faelish clubs CNF and East Faelia won the European Cup in 2001 and 2008 respectively. The Faelish national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2005, losing only to the eventual champions England.

Notables Cities of Faeland

See also: List of cities of Ríocht Fíl