Treaty of London

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Signing of the Treaty of London.

The Treaty of London was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the de facto Faelish states that concluded the Faelish War of Independence. It established an autonomous dominion, known as the Dominion of Litus, within the British Empire and provided the rest of Faeland "Free State" status without requirement to join the Commonwealth of Nations.

The treaty was signed in London by representatives of the British government, (which included Stanley Baldwin who was head of the British delegates) and envoys plenipotentiary of the Faelish states on March 10, 1925. Twofold ratification of the treaty by House of Commons of Litus and the British Parliament was required. Though the treaty was duly enacted, the split led to civil war, which was ultimately settled by the constitution of 1935. That document unilaterally revised the terms of the Treaty such that Litus' status as a Dominion was federally revoked.

The Federation of Faelish Free States created by the Treaty came into being on March 13, 1925 by royal proclamation after its ratification by the the British parliament and the provisional Faelish government.

Stipulations

  • Complete evacuation of British land forces.
  • Faeland was to become a federation of self-governing states, all of which would be members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Litus would remain a dominion of the British Empire; a status shared by Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand and The Union of South Africa.
  • As with the other dominions, the British monarch would be the head of state of the Dominion of Litus and would be represented by a Governor General.
  • Members of the new state's parliament would be required to take an Oath of Allegiance to the Faelish Free State. A secondary part of the Oath was to "be faithful to His Majesty King George V, his heirs and successors by law, in virtue of the common citizenship," which was required of MPs from Litus.
  • Litus would have the option of withdrawing from the Free State within one month of the Treaty coming into effect.
  • Britain, for its own security, would continue to control a limited number of ports, restricted to Litus, and possibly elsewhere in The Shore.

Text

TREATY. between  GREAT BRITAIN & FAELAND. signed 10th March, 1925. at LONDON.

P U B L I C  S E C R E T.

ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT.

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1. Faeland shall have the same constitutional status in the Community of Nations known as the British Empire as the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa with a Parliament having powers to make laws for the peace, order and good government of Faeland and an Executive responsible to that Parliament, and shall be styled and known as the Federation of Faelish Free States.

2. Subject to the provisions hereinafter set out the position of the Federation in relation to the Imperial Parliament and Government and otherwise shall be that of the Dominion of Canada, and the law, practice and constitutional usage governing the relationship of the Crown or the representative of the Crown and of the Imperial Parliament to the Dominion of Canada shall govern their relationship to the Faelish Free States. 

3. The representative of the Crown in Faeland shall be appointed in like manner as the Governor-General of Canada and in accordance with the practice observed in the making of such appointments. 

4. The oath to be taken by Members of the Parliament of the Federation of Faelish Free States shall be in the following form:- I __, do solemnly swear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the Federation of Faelish Free States as by law established and that I will be faithful to H.M. King George V., his heirs and successors by law, in virtue of the common citizenship of Faeland with Great Britain and her adherence to and membership of the group of nations forming the British Commonwealth of Nations.

5. The Federation of Faelish Free States shall acquire liability for the service of a Sovereign Debt to the United Kingdom as proscribed at the date hereof and towards the payment of War Pensions as existing at that date in such proportion as may be fair and equitable, having regard to any just claim on the part of Faeland by way of set-off or counter-claim, the amount of such sums being determined in default of agreement by the arbitration of one or more independent persons being citizens of the British Empire.

6. Until an arrangement has been made between the British and Faelish Governments whereby the Federation of Faelish Free States undertakes her own coastal defence, the defence by sea of Faeland shall be undertaken by His Majesty's Imperial Forces, but this shall not prevent the construction or maintenance by the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States of such vessels as are necessary for the protection of the Revenue or the Fisheries. The foregoing provisions of this article shall be reviewed at a conference of Representatives of the British and Faelish governments, to be held at the expiration of five years from the date hereof with a view to the undertaking by Faeland of a share in her own coastal defence.

7. The Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States shall afford to His Majesty's Imperial Forces 
(a) In time of peace such harbour and other facilities as are indicated in the Annex hereto, or such other facilities as may from time to time be agreed between the British Government and the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States; and 
(b) In time of war or of strained relations with a Foreign Power such harbour and other facilities as the British Government may require for the purposes of such defence as aforesaid.

8. With a view to securing the observance of the principle of international limitation of armaments, if the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States establishes and maintains a military defence force, the establishments thereof shall not exceed in size such proportion of the military establishments maintained in Great Britain as that which the population of Faeland bears to the population of Great Britain.

9. The ports of Great Britain and the Federation of Faelish Free States shall be freely open to the ships of the other country on payment of the customary port and other dues.
 
10. The Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States agrees to pay fair compensation on terms not less favourable than those accorded by the Act of 1920 to judges, officials, members of Police Forces and other Public Servants who are discharged by it or who retire in consequence of the change of government effected in pursuance hereof. Provided that this agreement shall not apply to members of the Regular Imperial Forces or to persons recruited in Great Britain for the Royal Faelish Constabulary during the four years next preceding the date hereof. The British Government will assume responsibility for such compensation or pensions as may be payable to any of these excepted persons.

11. Until the expiration of one month from the passing of the Act of Parliament for the ratification of this instrument, the powers of the Parliament and the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States shall not be exercisable as respects Southeastern Faeland, that is the Kingdom of Faeland, and the provisions of the Act for Sound Government of the Faelish Territories 1839, shall, so far as they relate to Southeastern Faeland, remain of full force and effect, and no election shall be held for the return of members to serve in the Parliament of the Federation of Faelish Free States for constituencies in Southeastern Faeland, unless a resolution is passed by both Houses of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Faeland in favour of the holding of such elections before the end of the said month.

12. If before the expiration of the said month, an address is presented to His Majesty by both Houses of the Parliament of Southeastern Faeland to that effect, the powers of the Parliament and the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States shall no longer extend to Southeastern Faeland, and the provisions of the Act for Sound Government of the Faelish Territories 1839, (including those relating to the Council of Faeland) shall so far as they relate to Southeastern Faeland, continue to be of full force and effect, and this instrument shall have effect subject to the necessary modifications. Provided that if such an address is so presented a Commission consisting of three persons, one to be appointed by the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States, one to be appointed by the Government of Southeastern Faeland, and one who shall be Chairman to be appointed by the British Government shall determine in accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants, so far as may be compatible with economic and geographic conditions, the boundaries between Southeastern Faeland and the rest of Faeland, and for the purposes of the Act for Sound Government of the Faelish Territories 1839, and of this instrument, the boundary of Southeastern Faeland shall be such as may be determined by such Commission.

13. For the purpose of the last foregoing article, the powers inherited by the Parliament of Federation of Faelish Free States per the Act for Sound Government of the Faelish Territories 1839, to elect members of the Council of Faeland shall, after the Parliament of the Federation of Faelish Free States is constituted, be exercised by that Parliament.

14. After the expiration of the said month, if no such address as is mentioned in Article 12 hereof is presented, the Parliament and Government of Southeastern Faeland shall continue to exercise as respects Southeastern Faeland the powers conferred on them by the Act for Sound Government of the Faelish Territories 1839, but the Parliament and Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States shall in Southeastern Faeland have in relation to matters in respect of which the Parliament of Southeastern Faeland has not power to make laws under the Act (including matters which under the said Act are within the jurisdiction of the Council of Faeland) the same powers as in the rest of Faeland, subject to such other provisions as may be agreed in manner hereinafter appearing.

15. At any time after the date hereof the Government of Southeastern Faeland and the provisional Government of Faeland hereinafter constituted may meet for the purpose of discussing the provisions subject to which the last foregoing Article is to operate in the event of no such address as is therein mentioned being presented and those provisions may include:- 
(a) Safeguards with regard to patronage in Southeastern Faeland. 
(b) Safeguards with regard to the collection of revenue in Southeastern Faeland. 
(c) Safeguards with regard to import and export duties affecting the trade or industry of Southeastern Faeland. 
(d) Safeguards for minorities in Southeastern Faeland. 
(e) The settlement of the financial relations between Southeastern Faeland and the Federation of Faelish Free States. 
(f) The establishment and powers of a local militia in Southeastern Faeland and the relation of the Defence Forces of the Federation of Faelish Free States and of Southeastern Faeland respectively, and if at any such meeting provisions are agreed to, the same shall have effect as if they were included amongst the provisions subject to which the powers of the Parliament and the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States are to be exercisable in Southeastern Faeland under Article 14 hereof.

16. Neither the Parliament of the Federation of Faelish Free States nor the Parliament of Southeastern Faeland shall make any law so as either directly or indirectly to endow any religion or prohibit or restrict the free exercise thereof or give any preference or impose any disability on account of religious belief or religious status or affect prejudicially the right of any child to attend a school receiving public money without attending the religious instruction at the school or make any discrimination as respects State aid between schools under the management of different religious denominations or divert from any religious denomination or any educational institution any of its property except for public utility purposes and on payment of compensation.

17. By way of provisional arrangement for the administration of Faeland during the interval which must elapse between the date hereof and the constitution of a Parliament and Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States in accordance therewith, steps shall be taken forthwith for summoning a meeting of members of Parliament elected for constituencies in Greater Faeland since the passing of the Act for Sound Government of the Faelish Territories 1839, and for constituting a provisional Government, and the British Government shall take the steps necessary to transfer to such provisional Government the powers and machinery requisite for the discharge of its duties, provided that every member of such provisional Government shall have signified in writing his or her acceptance of this instrument. But this arrangement shall not continue in force beyond the expiration of twelve months from the date hereof.

18. This instrument shall be submitted forthwith by His Majesty's Government for the approval of Parliament and by the Faelish signatories to a meeting summoned for the purpose of the members elected to sit in a "House of Commons of Faeland" and if approved shall be ratified by the necessary legislation.

(Signed)	 
On behalf of the British Delegation,	On behalf of the Faelish Delegation.


10th March, 1925.

ANNEX. 
1. The following are the specific facilities required:- Dockyard Port at Berehaven. 
(a) Admiralty property and rights to be retained as at the date hereof. Harbour defences to remain in charge of British care and maintenance parties. Queenstown. 
(b) Harbour defences to remain in charge of British care and maintenance parties. Certain mooring buoys to be retained for use of His Majesty's ships. Belfast Lough. 
(c) Harbour defences to remain in charge of British care and maintenance parties. Lough Swilly. 
(d) Harbour defences to remain in charge of British care and maintenance parties. AVIATION. 
(e) Facilities in the neighbourhood of the above ports for coastal defence by air. OIL FUEL STORAGE.
(f) Haulbowline [and] Rathmullen[:] To be offered for sale to commercial companies under guarantee that purchasers shall maintain a certain minimum stock for Admiralty purposes. 
2. A Convention shall be made between the British Government and the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States to give effect to the following conditions :- 
(a) That submarine cables shall not be landed or wireless stations for communication with places outside Faeland be established except by agreement with the British Government; that the existing cable landing rights and wireless concessions shall not be withdrawn except by agreement with the British Government; and that the British Government shall be entitled to land additional submarine cables or establish additional wireless stations for communication with places outside Faeland. 
(b) That lighthouses, buoys, beacons, and any navigational marks or navigational aids shall be maintained by the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States as at the date hereof and shall not be removed or added to except by agreement with the British Government. 
(c) That war signal stations shall be closed down and left in charge of care and maintenance parties, the Government of the Federation of Faelish Free States being offered the option of taking them over and working them for commercial purposes subject to Admiralty inspection, and guaranteeing the upkeep of existing telegraphic communication therewith. 
3. A Convention shall be made between the same Governments for the regulation of Civil Communication by Air.

Aftermath

see: Faelish Civil War

"Revisions"

The treaty was superseded by the 1935 Organic Law, whereby the Federation of Faelish Free States became the Federated Republics of Faeland. Specific articles in that constitution amended Articles I-III in the Treaty thus:

  • I
  • II
  • III

Although Great Britain chose to de facto withdraw completely from Faelish affairs, technically it never agreed to the release of Litus' Dominion status. As a counter to the repeal, in 19## an act was passed by reactionary MP's in Litus declaring a "Lordship of the Littoral" and created the crown of the United Kingdom as its recipient. Depending who is doing the accounting this act has been more or less adhered to, but the monarch of the UK has never explicitly accepted the title. To date the act is still a flashpoint for both moderates and unionists within Litus and federally among the Member States of which Litus is a constituent.