From Anglo-American Cyclopaedia
Jump to: navigation, search


getting started

city name

castra faelanensis

Vorenna USED

Solon USED

Aloranovas (city?) (rename a current italian copy city) (CUMAE)

city name Ferrain (iron) (rename a current Italian copy city) (CAPUA)

check if these might be in already

The town was a Neolithic settlement and an important Etruscan center (Velathri or Felathri) with an original civilization; it became a municipium in the Roman Age. The city was a bishop's residence in the 5th century, and its episcopal power was affirmed during the 12th century. With the decline of the episcopate, Volterra became a place of interest of the Florentines, whose forces conquered Volterra. Florentine rule was not always popular, and opposition occasionally broke into rebellion. These rebellions were put down by Florence. The poet Jacopo da Leona was a judge at Volterra in the 13th century.

^ a town (one of the norse re-settled ones) in pentapoli...maybe septimania


prob already have this somewhere but:

also use some of the features of the factbox to create a city factbox


generally speaking i think the history should change a bit to reflect a few things:

a) the roman population was never large and consisted mostly of the original settlers to the colonies. very very limited immigration thereafter. the town became largely populated by locals (celathi?) but were intensely romanized. the roman urban elites were the progenitors of the medieval nobility.

b) a large influx of north italians during the middle ages in expanding trade empires. particularly genoese?? (they seeme to be the most colonial of the italians

c) and a third period following the collapse of the wherein many locals emmigrated to the pentapolis again.

tribal history

early origins very clan-centered and palace economies: THe gnaghi being prominent among them.

a nice tribal background for a few peoples in pentapoli or perhaps somewhere in the south.... maybe as a connection: south = Nuragic and north are descendants/Etruscans

believe volterra has been used for....saluernu i think but double check


cities and nodes ixtia and mecatli, the net cape with stones knotted into it...representative of the potentate or whatever

The history of the region could be neatly encapsulated and tied-in with Falcatta and Ferraione Archipelago using the stories of Lucius of "Fragmented Empire" fame. In FACT that history could be used a source doc for the medieval history of the coastal region south of Sants Nemhora.

for starters:

ANNALES BREVIS ORBIS VALLONI or A Brief Chronicle of the World of the Vallones.

From the Battle of Saxa Rubra to Recent Times.

Brethren from the Eastern Empire, who reckon years from the birth of their Saviour, subtract seven hundred fifty three years from the dates given. That would put 1065 AUC as 312 AD.

In the years following western usurper Constantine’s defeat, reckoned 1,065 years from the founding of Roma Urbs, the empire was simultaneously fractured and given fortitude. An earlier historian referred to its power as ‘unity by dismemberment.’ However repugnant this interpretation of events might be, its description of the events and their repercussions is accurate to a degree.

Immediately following the terminal engagement of Constantine’s bid for ultimate power, the victorious parties dissevered the empire of the west into two equal parts. That is to say that Diocletianus’s brilliant tetrarchy was annulled and now three equal Augusti controlled the empire (Licinius in the east had not felt the scourge of Constantine’s legions). Legend tells us that following the battle, the successor to Maxentius, Pompeianus, had a discussion with Constantine, in which he realized Constantine’s potential value in defense of the empire. He was bestowed with Praetorian powers and assigned to defend the Danuvius frontier of the central empire. A Praetorian tribune who was requisite to the outcome of the battle, one Anullinus, was crowned Augustus of the Gauls. Those are the provinces, not to be confused with the self-styled Gallic Emperors of before, who were also usurpers.

Upon his assumption of duties, Constantine made well his alleged promises to his vanquishers. He directly set about securing the lands across the river to the east of his demesne. Having re occupied Dacia so as to make the defense follow more geographically favorable lines, the Oriental empire was now free to make forays into Parthian lands. Once more, like Trajan reborn, Licinius made Mesopotamia a province again as well. Sadly, on his death, most of the far eastern stretches did not remain in our hands too long. The permanent, insofar as it lasted a few years more anyhow, border was erected closer to the province of Osrhoene. The eastern emperor, without issue, did adopt Constantine into his family as reward for his securing the north of Orient. Some years later, when Constantine was an old man, did he finally succeed his adoptive father to the throne. In his short reign, he conceived and generated two great projects. One being his famous city on the Bosphorus, the other discussed later.

Meanwhile, his colleagues in the west did nothing to improve the station of their safety. Though for their mutual benefit both established the religion to which most of Europa and her daughter nations of the new lands now belong, what was lately named Via. To much future discord the blame can be rested on Constantine here, for his independent character would not permit him to adopt the newly sponsored faith. Rather, he adopted a small sect of Judaism dubbed ‘Christians’ which hitherto had been rather forcefully persecuted to become his official creed. At the time, the western emperors were too weak to force anything on him, and so his dictate remained.

The successors to these three men whom history has repeatedly given the appellation AThird Triumvirate@ continued the pattern of opposing policies (NB- The Third Triumvirate is not meant to liken their system to those set in place by the Sancti Caesar and Augustus). But this time, as often happens in Roman history, two empires act similar, and one stands in stubborn certainty of its infallibility. Here I am referring to the periods of the Great Invasions, when chief amongst the barbarian peoples, the Huns, forced all manner of Germanic strains to put such a pressure on the Roman lands in the west, and to a smaller extent that of the east, that all mutually crumbled to a near breaking point that would not truly reverse until nearly half a millennium later. The eastern empire, hereon referred to as Orient, took the path of least resistance, as did Roma Media. When tribes threatened to overrun, Rome and Orient simply ceded lands to tribes, appointing Kings of Federates. These helped to Romanize incoming peoples and protect Romans proper from the seemingly endless, and steadfastly barbaric peoples farther east. By the year 1233, the most impressive federate state was that of the Ostrogoths. This was ceded by the empires middle and eastern from all the Hadriatic coasts back to the Danube river. A monstrous donation intended no doubt to appease the insatiate people, and also to trade a large, hard defended frontier for a much shorter one.

The story of the Ostrogoths is entwined deeply with the dissolution of the central imperial title. The events that transpired were as follows: The final emperor of Roma, ruling from Ravenna, was assassinated by a Germanic general named Odoacer. Odoacer established a personal kingdom in the north reaches of Italy, with the intent to push south and eliminate the middle empire altogether. The Senate in Rome appointed a dictator from its ranks and called on Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, to help depose Odoacer. In return for his help, he is given the aforementioned tracts.

In the western empire, hereon referred to as Occident, things ran very differently. The emperors were secure in their positions, bolstered by the martial weight of the Praetorians, who since the time of Anullinus were at the emperors personal disposal as a tool of politics. It should be noted that the absence of Praetorians benefited the middle empire tremendously. The lack of steel in politics allowed the Senate more room to expand its potency. In the west, the emperors thought that their Rhine frontier was impregnable. When in fact, it was all the soldiers could do to keep the whole realm from faltering. Augusta Treverorum was the most glorious capital the west had yet seen, as Rome had fallen into disuse as an imperial capital. Thrice did major tribes pierce western defences, to establish kingdoms in the Occidental hinterlands. To the Visigoths -cousins of the Ostrogoths- and the Suebi went Hispania; and Africa went to the Vandals (these would harass the seas for some time until Orient defeated them). Along the eastern frontier as well were conquests achieved by the Germans. Thuringia, Burgundia, and Francia were all well established at this time, and modern scholars report Saxonia was in its formative stages; untamed by outsiders, but solidifying into one of the only homogenous principalities at the time. Of note as well were the Vasconii, who freed themselves of the west when the Visigoths invaded. Brittania was evacuated over the course of time. Several Occidental emperors requisitioning troops over the years left the island deprived of a garrison, and when barbarians landed on the shores, Roman/Briton governors could do little but capitulate.

Here it is good to note a few details of central Europa before continuing the trials and tribulations of the empire. Prime amongst these is the marshaling of Frankish power in the Rhine valley. This happened much to the detriment of Occident, as the Franks steadily forced their way west of the Rhine. Secondly, the hitherto capital of Occident was Tolosa, as Treverorum was lost. As a gift from the Orient, an architect from Constantinople came and planned a fabulously fortified city known as Arx for the west to make its capital. Now the west’s center was impregnable as well. This would prove time and again to be the savior of the west, just as it was in the east.

Hark! 1321 has arrived, and the commencement of a prodigious misunderstanding has gotten underway. Soon, all to soon, a fabulous chess game will begin that will pit Roma on her path back to supremacy. But, as will soon be understood by all gentle readers, the pieces are here only just being set up on the board. And the coming strategies are all too complex to ensure swift victory. At times, one side or the other will hardly be able to tell each others pawns from their own.

As the allegory fades away, let the unblemished truth fill your thoughts. In this year, 1321, the first vanguards of a barbaric people first crossed the Alps into the tattered remnants of Imperial Italia, all that remained of the Central Imperium. These were the Lombards. They had the obvious intent to gain the whole peninsula, and the Senate and People of Rome did not let them get farther than Ravenna without seeking foreign assistance. Firstly, the Ostrogoths were contacted. These, with internal power struggles all their own, could only help so much as to provide an annoying mosquito bite in the flank of the Lombard hide. Next, Rome petitioned the east, at present the most powerful of the three Romes (the Occident was embroiled with the Franks at the moment who were pushing into Gaul). Presently, the Orient was sending out a valiant but aged general named Belisarius to conquer back some isles of the Sea for Orient. Constantinople sent as many troops as it could muster from this force to help push back the Lombard invaders, who now controlled all but Rome and Ravenna, which had the strongest imperial garrisons.

After long and bloody siege and counter-siege, the East managed to push the Kingdom of the Lombards as far north as Lucca, in northern Etruria, with a small pocket of Lombard power stretching east from Spoleto. As Constantinople tired of the war, it ground to a halt, and as terms of peace were drawn, Byzantium laid claim to south Italia. To Rome’s horror and utter inability to change, these were made a province of the Eastern empire. The Lombard Kingdom in the far north remained, Spoleto was made a duchy, suzerained to the Pavian kingdom of the Lombards, and Italia remaining, namely Etruria and Latium, were turned over to the Senate of Roma.

Roma proper was now in her darkest hour. An Exarch of the east ruled from Neapolis, a Lombard Duke shuffled hungrily to the visible east of Rome herself, and a weakened but still stable Lombard kingdom presided in the north. These three contestants chomped mercilessly for an opportunity to take the last token piece of Media, a fabulous prize. Roma now saw that the east had betrayed her, and her only hope was in the west, somewhere.

Whilst all of this was going on, in Gaul the tide was equally red for Occident, but not nearly as complicated. For here was a simple problem. Occident had but one powerful enemy, Francia. As much as they had converted to Via and fought with Rome in the spiritual wars, she nevertheless chipped away at Occident under the powerful and charismatic kings she produced. The Frank kingdom stretched from Belgia (the former province) to Atlanticus, and, by 1453, to Mare Nostrum. Occident’s magnificent castle-city survived, cut off, the only other remaining imperial territories were backed against the Pyrenees with Tolosa as the strongest fortified point. You might say that the Roman west looked like so many scared children backed into a corner with nowhere to run.

That was what Roma saw when she sought a savior in the west. A shriveled but stout western empire, with no aid to send, and a powerful Germanic state that looked set to destroy western Roman sovereignty. The mighty fathers of Rome made the wisest decision ever made, just then. Only to the keen retrospective eye can its beauty be seen. These fathers went to the Frankish court, and petitioned for an alliance. The fruit of this agreement was to set the three empires at loggerheads with one another and the Frankish dominion and its descendants for generations to come. But it saved the western empires from an otherwise inevitable extinction.

The treaty exploited a point of internal strife among the Franks and anointed the new royal house of Francia, the Carolingians, with recognition by the Vian faith. For the mandate to fight for the God-Protector had been granted to the Merovingians. The Carolingians usurped the Frankish kingship, and thus had no mandate. In return for this recognition, the Frankish Kingdom was made the Friend and Ally of the Roman People. With the massive weight that Francia added to Media’s camp, the powers that be surrounding Roma would not dare assail. And the most powerful, the Lombard Kingdom, was earmarked for conquest. As King Pepin of the Franks made conquests in Rome’s name, he was obligated to let Occident alone, as most of his troops were engaged in Italia and eastern Europe.

This situation continues, with East Empire focusing it’s energies elsewhere and thus leaving Media’s south relatively secure. Francia, in it’s mind, was set for ultimate power. No one in the west could stop it, and its kingdom was feared by all.

Into this situation stepped the greatest king of the Franks ever to live, called Carolus, dubbed Magnus by later historians. He is the great general who vanquished the last of the Lombards in north Italia. Upon the surrender of his Lombard Kingdom, Desiderius hailed Carolus the King of Italia. So, in effect, the nasty Germanic habit of kings ruling more than one nation without unifying them perpetuated itself all the way into Roman homelands.

Some small revelations on the nature of Carolus’ rule will be divulged here, to help you, gentle readers, better understand the Senate’s next move. At his ascension to the Frankish throne, the kingdom was ill-ruled. Carolus established major counties in his kingdom to better administer it. Along with these, he had missi dominici to watch his underlings. Francia, for once, was under the authority of its king. He set about conquering various regions before he became the King of Italia, among these were the Saxon lands, of which he had himself declared king of; Burgundia, whose duke was deposed and replaced with a suzerain, and the areas north of Italia and south of the Danube. The Saxons, one should note, were conquered under the pretext of fighting for Via. A good omen if Rome had ever seen one.

The Senate’s move then, was to invite its valiant ally to Rome for his reward. To this day, no one knows if Carolus had any idea what was to happen, but nevertheless, Rome had nothing to offer him in payment for his services except respect. And this the city gave him in one solemn title. Emperor. The argument raged for centuries amongst potentates as it does today amongst scholars about what the nature of this title was, and if there were other words attached to it. Some, as Rome does, claim that the title was no more than that. He was now Emperor Carolus, instead of King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, King of the Saxons, etc ad nauseam. It was a formal, Roman recognized unification of his territories. The Franks interpreted this anointing in a different fashion. As Roma Media had no Emperor, and the only ones in existence were Romans, the Senate must have been granting Carolus the Median throne (some went so far as to say that the Senate called him Emperor of the Romans, but this is almost universally agreed to be fabrication). But in all likelihood, would a body such as theirs place themselves into a situation whereby they were made into a commune under the rule of a foreign king become emperor? The answer is quite simply no. And the Romans themselves have protested down the centuries that that was not what they were intending.

At the time, however, the meaning of the title was not so hotly contested. The immediate outcome of the termination of Lombard power and subsequent crowning are equally ambiguous when trying to understand the nature of the relationship as well. Both sides have used the events to litigate the other’s claims, and once more, both have valid points. It is the view of this historian, however, that if Rome said it did not make itself part of Francia, then, quite simply, it did not. The crowning of Carolus brought his multifaceted territories under a universal nomenclature. And Carolus proposed in turn to establish a supreme prince of Roma to give face to the Senate. The Senate, however, saw no need of an Emperor, and told him so. This is another point of argument for pro-Frank scholars. They said that Roma did not appoint a new emperor, because they had just named one. So, at this juncture, The Senate agreed to dissolve the Middle Empire, Roma Media, and establish the Duchy of Latium. Carolus granted some Lombard lands and went on his way to his capital on the Rhine. The legitimate successor to the Roman Empire (of the middle of course), is then the Duchy of Latium, ruling Latium Proper, Etruria, the lands from Ravenna southwest to Rome, and the northern reaches of Campania. Ruled by a duke, heir to the Emperors, and the Senate, ruling since Romulus. Now, finally, Roma had her balance back, and the ability to begin defending herself once again. With the coming of the Arabs and Normans later, she would need to exercise those skills all too soon.

So now Europa in the west has one Roman Empire, and a Duke in Rome who is the legitimate successor to the other Roman Empire. Arx recognized his authority, and respected Latium’s role as successor. Though never voiced, one can pick up the attitude of Occident, however, to not treat the Duke quite as equally as they would a fellow emperor. The rest of Europa east of Occident’s patchwork empire is under the yoke of Francia, except for the wild areas beyond, increasingly known as Sclavonica, for a new people emerging there. Italia, below Latium, is largely in the hands of Orient, except Spoleto, which is still run by newly weak Lombards (without the mother kingdom in the north, they have nothing to back their threats) and Arab invaders were making their presence felt. But until Carolus’ grandsons come into the picture, the west is settled more or less for a time.

The above mentioned Normans, it should be noted, were originally a Frankish problem. Carving a principality from Frankish lands, they became strong enough and pious enough (so the excuse was, anyway) that when the Lombard Kingdom was vanquished, the weak Duchy of Spoleto feared its absorption into the Oriental sphere. Called on as mercenaries to defend against the Christian East, the Normans eventually created their own state from the crippled remains of Spoleto. Sacking Neapolis at some point, they pushed Orient all the way south so that only Sicilia remained in her hands. The Normans, with only slight lapse, should be credited with keeping Roma from overwhelming assault from transoceanic Arabs.

Meanwhile, events in Occident were not so troubling as these, but equally vexing. In all these years that the Frankish fate was being written, to the rear of Occident, the world was being turned upside down. The Germanic states that set up camp behind Occident had been trampled by the juggernaut of Islam, starting around the year 1464. The barbarian rulers had never ruled the Hispanian provinces wisely, imposing such legislation as to alienate there would be subjects. From this end, we see their ill-fated resistance to attacks from all manner of Saracen tribes and armies. Largely, for the purposes of this history, many details can be spared the reader’s time. Suffice your thirst for things related to our tale to say that these invaders did not care much for Via. Yet they proved to be more tolerant of the ruled than their predecessors, and this largely atrributed to the seeming complacency with which conquered Vians subdued themselves to their fate. No large, cohesive military threat was ever made to Occident, who nevertheless looked dreadfully over the Pyrenees at the Muslim advance, except one, which was only moderate a challenge. Occident mustered enough strength to repel invaders and in the process spark ideas of eradication in the minds of ardent Vians, the Vasconi. These Vasconi were enlisted along with Imperial regulars to defeat an invasion force led by Muslim princes into Occident at Tolosa. With this, the story of Mohammed in Hispania begins to ebb in glory. For in the future, small north Hispanian states take war to the infidels.

So now, my good friends, we approach the next round. I would say with good confidence that the most perplexing parts of our narrative are set. If you understood them you should follow the next events with relative ease. Everything was happy on the continent. Francia, looming large, was a lukewarm friend of Roma in all her guises. But one could see that Carolus’ hungry eyes wanted to attack Occidentalis. Instead, his pains were assuaged in the east of his realm, fighting to control various Germanic strains, and, to a lesser extent, some Sclavonic ones until he died in 1567.

Carolus’ son, Lovis I, inherited the throne of Francia from his father. In his governance he maintained the massive Frankish state his father had bequeathed to him, and pondered ominously the problem of his multiple progeny. The traditional backward custom of these Germanics was to split their kingdom amongst their sons. With his large school, he foresaw the fratricide to come. Upon his death, his ultimate testament bequeathed to each of his four issue different tracts of his lands. Of these, three were viable units, and the fourth evaporated as a Frankish territory within a year of it’s consumation (this was the patriotic Saxon realm, note this important event for its importance to providence). To his eldest son Pepinus went the eastern parts of Gaul that would hence trouble Occidentalis called Neustria; to Lothar, his eldest, went the heart of the realm -the Rhine valleys to the toe of Italia- appelled Lotharingia; and to Lovis II he gave the troublesome regions called by Romans Germania, and Franci fortunate enough to have Latin Francia Orientalis. Imagine! A Frankish Oriental Empire! Are they not a Roman history in miniature? Mark this, this is the arrangement after a bit of internecine battling ending not until the year 1596.

In this parlous quandary, the western emperor makes a decision that has fabulous consequences for the world. Quite hard to see though they are at this juncture in our yarn. Emperor Gallianus invokes an ancient Roman law that had not been employed since before Octavianus Augustus. This was that ability of the state to conscript citizens of all the classes into service in the military. As I have noted, Occidentalis was comprised of a region skirting Tolosa, and not more than a few miles encompassing Arx itself. Gallianus’ hope was to press these soldiers into the military to ensure his own state’s existence should Pepinus’ eye look on him. The tithe in men fell most heavily on the city of Tolosa. As the men of the country were not able to band together in protest, they came quietly for duty to the remaining legionary camps. Lo to the collector of bodies that dared stride into the Circus Tolosae! Liberdá! Liberdá! Liberdá! As in the capitals Arx and Constantinopolis, the chariot teams became the vox populi in times of civil strife. To satiate the volatile crowd, the Emperor granted rights to Comitia to the so-called Plebeians of Tolosa. This gave back to a Roman people the ability to gather legally and voice their wishes to the governors. In Arx additionally did he match these concessions. Not until later did the people fully realize this gift, but nevertheless it satisfied their political angst and the count of men to fight Frankish aggression significantly increased. How this evolves we shall see farther along.

We have forgotten to mention our Oriental brethren, however, and remedy that we do now. They had been faring healthily, having held back the hordes of Arabs, and even managing to move north of the Danube into former Dacia. Sclavonics now inhabited this region, but to report peoples speaking Latin swells a patriot’s heart with pride. In any event, their stoutness at the time helped them in a project in which the Western empires petitioned aid for one of the singular times in their communal history. For a singular undertaking doubtless.

This fulcrum of fate has been called of late the First Franco-Roman War. This is somewhat confusing, I feel. As other military engagements happened before this of some moment. The old appellation I find more suitable, and as this is my narrative I shall use it. This is the Great Frankish Campaign. We Romans are more in the habit of calling hostilities campaigns, as though still in the days of Caesar, conquering provinces. This campaign was strange in that -besides Latium not involving itself militarily- the Duke of Saxony was enlisted by the Occidental Emperor to begin an attack on the quarrelsome Frankish realms. These were preoccupied with annihilating each other, and Roma of the west could not pass such an opportunity. The emperor in his wisdom saw that no central authority existed any longer to field a large combat force, and that only small vassals would be there to defend the would be Frankish homeland. The Duke of Saxony wanted simply to eliminate the remains of Oriental Francia in Germania. To his end he recruited more Germanic dukes ans lords until he had enough to nominate a ‘Saxonic Confederation.’ With this they were prepared for martial engagements.

To make the events more honest, know that to reconquer Italia, Orient had agreed to invade from Brundisium, and to supplement Latium with the Greek Fire and Occident with silkworm eggs. So in 1624 the first legions to bring war to the barbarians in hundreds of years set forth.

In the north the Saxons and their socials (who constituted most of the titular east Frankish realm) first crushed the remaining Frankish loyalists. From this point forth, Francia Orientalis ceases to be a political entity. Following, they marched southwest into Francia proper, where the Franks began to speak a bastard Latin they adopted from the Gauls. When counted as a mere amalgamation of warrior bands with scattered horsemen, the Saxons made remarkable progress. Lest we forget, I recall for your attention the disrepair of the Frankish world. And mark to this anaemia the success of the Saxons.

Note also the small victories attained by Latium, whereby succeeding towns through off nominal Frankish control, and swore loyalty to the Duke in Roma. This gave the Duchy control of her internecine trade all the way to the base of the Alpes. These were mostly in north Etruria and Liguria the way around the bay no farther than Antipolis.

For the conquest in right Roman fashion, friends, we must favor Occidentalis. Her fight was both bravest and most impressive regarding odds of success. Remember her situation. Perched at the edge of a cliff dubbed defeat. Her armies raised among riots of citizens. Provinces reduced to mere environs of a city. But with the goodly amount of wealth which she harbored, and the stamina of properly trained soldiery, Occident fought and bought her way an empire from the scene that was Europa at the time.

The main military thrust was northward in the former diocese of Viennensis. The intent was to fight to the Liger River, where it was assumed the supply lines could be pushed no further at present. There, at least, to the west of the battlefields would be Brittany. Enlisted to assail the Franks lodged in Lugdunensis. This was done, and the weak Frankish lords of south Gaul were defeated. The North was bulwarked a touch more, with two large lordships controlling enough stability to retaliate should they be attakced. Thus, it was left largely alone.

In the lands known formerly as Helvetia, the Burgunds had lately settled. Like the Franks, they largely had been Latinized to the extent of their new subjects, who had formerly been subject to Septimontium herself. These dukes agreed also to expel Frankish overlordship, and let the Occidental forces occupy the Italian lands south of the Alpes with little to no resistance from Frank garrisons so far south as Tarracina. Here the Orient had occupied the lower half of the Boot.

So, other engagements about the Middle Sea included, the world in 1653 had a radically new shape. Sadly, many lands had been lost to Moors, including Creta in the east, Sicilia, Sardinia, and Corsica in the west. As well as the Baleares off Hispania.

In the former Illyrian provinces, Sclavonics had been making voluminous headway against the loyal Federate Goths. The Croats had moved in to the far north nearest Italia, and various other tribes had pushed the Goths so far they were physically situated as to be of more aid to the Orient. Meanwhile the Bulgars had created a Khanate opposite Orient in the former Dacian province.

In Hispania, the Vasconii were at the helm of a new era with their very own kingdom. Ardent defenders of Via that they were, their state was christened by the Pontifex Maximus. As well the Gallicians to the west were also beginning to fight the Moors. And finally, Burgundia sought anointment for its work with Occident against the Frankish kingdoms. This the Pontifex gave.

Occidentalis is basking in its wealth of conquest now, enhanced by the acquisition of silk production. Here I shall tell you a little of the social climate that is now wrought in West Empire. The lands liberated from the Franks had undergone many changes. Powerful Roman lords had existed when the Franks came in, and as many controlled private armies for the defense of their villas, they had never been vanquished. Instead they were made equals of the Frankish lords. When the emperor arrived in the regained provinces, these men had no reason to lay down arms. In fact, the emperor wished them to stay and thus help guard the new frontier and hold the new land. Granted a special provision by the Senate in Arx, these Domini were allowed to rule their tracts outside the normal provincial structure. Paying tithe and answering directly to the emperor, these small bastions of Romanity were to prove the strength behind the throne on many occasions. The value of these communities might not be fully comprehended by the readers. Mark that the small towns that formed about the villas preserved the Roman way of life in a land corrupted by the Franks. The autonomy enjoyed by these people helped to make the re-absorption into the Occidental empire more fluid.

Before the successors to the conquering emperor of late are mentioned (who will also conquer, but in efforts to strike their own name large), we should mention the arrival of the Normanni. These Scandian people are a nuisance for quite some time before ever proving valuable. They are of many races, but one is specifically titled Normanii. Them we shall learn about. Causing the most damage in Brittania and the north half of Gaul (still in Frank hands), they again tire the worn Frankish realms. These men become so intense along the north coast, facing Brittania, that a king of Neustria (splinter Frankish kingdom) opts to grant them a duchy. To us it is obvious that this Karl the Simple granted nothing, merely gave title to an inhabitant before he took the king’s title! So now the most powerful man in Neustria was in fact a duke of dissimilar stock than his noble peers. Not owing loyalty, this duke and his heirs succeeded in acquiring additions to their domain via war with her neighbors. For our purposes, I consider this Duchy effectively separate from the kingdom. Other historians, do what ye will. These are a warlike people, sure. But mind also that they were assimilated quickly in the Frankish cultural fold. A sadness when considered they could have been like us, but what can an empire do when separated by a band of other men?

The grandson of our last conquering emperor is a wealthy man. Like his Oriental counterpart, he has private income from silk. The capital Arx stands proud and dominant. The provinces are loyal as are the Domini. The troops are trained and his powerful Praetorians were still highly trained and were now well armed. He thirsted for the glory of his grandfather, a conquering hero. With his coffers full, he begins to intrigue for another alliance.

He saw that his only threat to his rear was the sea that Arx faced. Emperor Maximinus Potestas commissioned Latium to begin the eradication of the Pirates in the sea, and conquest of the isles Corsica and Sardinia. His further forays into Francia involve crucial allies, and so was the help of Burgundia, and a stronger Saxon Confederation recruited. The Saxons had recently lost the Duke of Bohemia and Bavaria and were looking to expand into former Lotharingia. We recall this to be the land betwixt the two empires previous.

Before the result of war is dictated, we should note the subtle goal of this war that no warrior, be it Occident, the Saxons or Burgundia would admit to. Namely Treverorum, lately called Trier by the Franks. This city had been the capital of Occident for a stretch of time. A fabulously well fortified city, it commanded the Rhenus frontier in it’s heyday. Though Arx required it rightly, Saxony sought a city of such magnitude to begin it’s westward expansion properly. And what better base than such as this? Founded by Augustus, the city promised prestige. The west Emperor sought to destroy the Franks completely, and beat the Saxons to the territory where the city lay, dilapidated, but waiting for her former masters.

At the outset of war, Occident was at a disadvantage for speed. Her front ranged the entire length of borders with the Franks, and the Croats became such a nuisance that a small contingent of troops were launched to fight them back. The Burgundian King struck north from his mountains and secured a small conquest. The Saxons, mischievously, pushed one column of troops right across the Rhenus directly for Treverorum. They continued until they met Occidental troops across the Sequana, where they had not been able to advance any further.

The Franks thus had been sequestered into a small triangular patch of land provincially known as Belgica. Even the Norman Duchy had been compressed slightly eastward, giving Rome her first view of Brittania across the water in some time. Another conquering hero. The war died down with Latium gaining its islands in the Middle Sea. Brettania, a queer outpost of refugees from Brittania on the northwestern Peninsula, had been separate from the Frankish realm for some time, and for their part in the struggle were granted a king with mandate from the Pontifex Maximus. Brettania had it’s capital at Nantes. For promises of alliance against further Frankish aggression, the Normanni Duke was hailed king by the Pontifex and the Emperor, and officially welcomed into the Roman fold.

For some time the west had its border as they were at this time. So before we go to the next great era, we should explore the world about Occident and Latium just for backdrop. The world is not too much different in 1703 than it was fifty years previous, but for Orientalis it was quite dramatic a change. For our sister empire, a few devastating many shifts had taken place.

I ask ye readers to forgive my glossing of a recount of Oriental affairs. I would not lie and say I find it as equally riveting as the tale of the west. I will tell of the events recent to our tale thus far about Occident hither.

1375 occident, latium, and the newly organized saxon empire begin crusades against the muslim principalities. the romanic states in spain also begin to fight southward. south italy is ceded to occident, and latium takes the independent principalities that had existed along the campanian coast, socalled kingdom of neapolis. hungary emerges as a threat in central euroipe, whilst german and slavic states begin to form.

1425 occident absorbs slavic states in defense against the nwely powerful hungarian power. orient loses a lot to sultanate of rum. most of the saxonic states in the east are lost.

as they start to declare independence

1460 by now the crusades have grounded to a halt. spanish borders are more or less set, as rome fosters nontermination of conflict in the region, to avoid a consolidated state. when the orient begs occident and rome for help against the ottomans, a meeting is set up between all empires, and the rumi want constantinople, which they consider the ultimate prize. in the end, they are granted it and the east empire is left with graecia, where thessalonika is quickly made the capital. immediately thereafter, the roman republic is officially established from the former ducate, which is abolished. to unify it with the west empire, one of the two consuls elected is always the west emperor. he retains absolute authority in the west, but in the republic his power is shared with his colleague. this gives rome autonomy, though suzerainty/alliance. this is the beginning of the restoreation of the roman empire, which when referred to now, means the two united states. also, the roman consul is given command of the armies of the republic, not sharing it wih west emp like would have been done true republican way. s. italy ceded by west to republic. *Perhaps the east emperor will retain absolute authority in the grecophonic areas of the empire, but will be allowed no standing armies.* by 1480, the frank kingdoms join with the kingdom of Saxony to create a german empire under two major crowns (Saxonia and Francia) to defend against roman aggression.

c1550 (once again this means by 1550) war takes place over trumped up accusations stretching back to arminius, and rome counter invades to the elbe...the saxon kingdom is reduced to almost nil, and signs surrender of lands, many germanics in the region are shipped to the americas (a recent aragonese discovery by a roman mariner [shipped to boston area]) and roman colonists from italia are brought in and given lands (as a relief of poverty in italia) [possibly work in germanic slaves/italian masters] this begins the trend of the longitudinal roman culture strip going from the north sea strait down to south italy, with the alps becoming a major military zone, with forts and the like.

c1600 Danio, in spain, is made a free city, and protectorate of Rome; The republic of carthage is established in carthage, under treaty, no navy can be produced, and roman ships are granted use of the harbor (the city is basically an islamic/roman mix by now); orientalis is re established by popular vote (the region was like 90% in favor, the rest of the empire like 60% [no one likes the greeks]) with thessalonica as capital. it is also a protectorate of Rome, but completely independent to govern itself. Add in something where the heartland between elbe and rhine is broken off into some sort of new state. Change the map to show this. It is roman or german? I don’t know. Something cool, think of it later, but empire proper comes around in a loop (up rhine, along coast, down elbe.) Don’t thknk it should be a military state though. To dangerous and unlikely.

nb from now, only cultural things happen inside the empire, whose borders are mostly set. the "helvetians" in OTL switzerland make massive immigrations to the new world, as the region becomes very italic, due to the crossroad nature of their land between germania and italia, a return to senate and imperial provinces will give the proper start for auonomy and republicanism. by modern times, rome is still capital, and switzerland is something of the nations fort, most troops stationed there on government land, palaces and government buildoings etc...possibly provincial separatrism in the early 20th era could lead to wars on "world scale", something like what happened in ww1

from 1600 (from written notes): from 1600 forward, most countries begin expanding in 'america' denmark becomes powerful, along with baltic states, because germans need them for access to the ocean 9save saxony0. england is also becoming dominant though constantly with rome via ireland (may or may not have england unified). the spains establish light colonies in s. america, but cant finance anything big. rome, in its victories has become top heavy (perhaps like phillip 2 of spain) and disrespectful of the lower classes, like france of our 17th century. her holdings in america are vast but run as state owned plantaions 'latifundia.' there is no 'colonialism' to speak of. just roman masters over german slaves. native anericans treated with respect, but accasionally cheated by romans. only people in roman provinces wanting 'freedom' are slaves. empire becomes decadent from here and gets embroiled i nmany costly wars against all nations of europe on both continents. by 18th century europe prospers while citizens of empire starve and riot. by early 1800s, revoliutions have calmed, but perhaps only with humiliating foreing aid. perhaps regional separatism leads to a napoleonic figure from the republic, who creates a truly united empire. maybe we could say that in the riots, the emperorship was abolished...french revolution style.

18th cent.

vhallonesian people are horse people. as the british enclosed the Midlands some great number of faels migrated north to the gallic plain looking for work on the latifundia which were ancient but also feeling the pressures of social change and the break up of ancient regimes (french revolution/"enlightenment" and the coming of the industrial power in britain). the land, always rocky and tough anyway, now had cheap horsemen and herders...hired hands a-plenty basically. and so, the great lords of the plain gave over the hills to these men. who became the montanheri. beginning in the 18th century these became the basis of a new strength for the pentapolese nobility, always cavalier. and now they had the ability to field great hordes (by faelish standards) of ranger troops. and thus effectively could still resist the demesne. for once, faels and vallones serve a common goal


pentapolese society (pre-Roman?):

magic to ward off evil (an eye to watch where yours cannot):

institutions - link to vallo language inst

northern insurrection? for Northern Insurrection in pentapoli


pre-roman name

pentapolis history needs to be organized properly. and a name for the region. prior to roman ttimes. because latin coast and pentapoli refer to a roman/post-roman time

perhaps "phelnc" era or something, to refer to the common people of the pre-roman time


a region of pentapoli:

around l'argentau?

external view of the place

city traditions

tie in with the arrival of the faelo-horsemen, should be a city in the flatlands... la vassa

overall look and feel

overcast dalmatia

irish settlers of the 6th and 7th centuries

probably only a handful of monasteries in the ferraiones and perhaps more sparsely settled areas like old visentum. but some traces of the language are evident in the rubrian dialects of celathi demonstrating contact between isolated peoples and the priests. perhaps even a few pockets of "irish" still exist on the island in general, distinct from the "modern irish" of the dhiall