Vallo grammar is the plan of forms which describe the meaningful architecture of the Vallo Language. It has many traits in common with other Vallonic languages. Like most Indo-European languages, words can have genders, plurals, articles (borrowed and modified from Greek), cases and inflections. Vallo has masculine, feminine, and neuter genders. In addition to plurals, it also has an unusual singulative marker. The language has both a definite and indefinite article.
Vallo has four declensions of nouns and three conjugations of verbs (although some words are inflected according to irregular patterns). It has articles and in almost all cases an article is used. Vallo uses prepositions, and generally places adjectives after nouns. The language can also omit pronouns in certain situations, meaning that the form of the verb alone is generally sufficient to identify the agent; pronouns are most often used for emphasis. Vallo exhibits Latinate verb-framing, in which the path of motion is encoded into the verb; e.g., "exit" (a compound of ex- and it) means "he/she/it goes out."
The grammar of Vallo, like that of some Indo-European languages, is highly inflected; consequently, it allows for a high degree of flexibility in choosing word order. In each word the suffix and not the position in the sentence marks the word's grammatical function. Word order, however, is generally subject–object–verb (like its mother language Latin), although variations on this are especially common in poetry and express subtle nuances in prose (again, as in Latin).
- 1 Nouns
- 2 Adjectives
- 3 Adverbs
- 4 Pronouns
- 5 Verbs
- 6 Use of Cases
- 7 Grammatical Constructions
Nouns decline in accordance with one of the four declensions.
All first declension nouns end with the letter "a". Nearly all the nouns of this declension are feminine. The most common masculine nouns are náuda and axricóla (sailor and farmer, respectively).
|First Declension||Singular||Plural||Example (hé náuda (f) - the sailor)|
|Nominative||-a||-ae||hé fémina||háe femináe|
|Genitive||-ae||-arum||tés femináe||tón feminárum|
|Dative||-i||-is||té fémini||táes féminis|
|Accusative||-am||-as||tén féminam||tás féminas|
|Ablative||-e||-es||té fémine||tés fémines|
Most nouns of the second declension are either masculine or neuter and end with the letter "u". Steadfast exceptions are proper names of cities and geographical features, which are always feminine.
|Second Declension||Singular||Plural||Example (hó sérfu (m) - the slave)|
|Nominative||-u||-i||hó sérfu||hóe sérfi|
|Genitive||-i||-orum||tó sérfi||tóen serfórum|
|Dative||-o||-os||tó sérfo||tóes sérfos|
|Accusative||-um||-us||tón sérfum||tós sérfus|
|Ablative||-e||-es||té sérfe||tés sérfes|
Nouns of the second and a half declension end with the letter "u" but take different endings. Gender can be determined by the article but mostly correspond to their Latin equivalents in that languages Fourth Declension.
|Second and a Half Declension||Singular||Plural||Example (tó córnu (n) - the horn)|
|Nominative||-u||-i||tó córnu||tá córnua|
|Genitive||-us||-urum||tóu córnus||tón cornúrum|
|Dative||-ui||-ufus||táes córnui||tóen cornúfus|
|Accusative||-um||-us||tó córnum||tá córnus|
|Ablative||-u||-ufus||táes córnu||tóen cornúfus|
Nouns of the third declension end with either "-is", "-es", "-e", or "-er"; they can be masculine, feminine, or neuter (the easiest method of identification is the accompanying article).
|Third Declension||Singular||Plural||Example (hó _____ (m) - the _____)|
|Nominative||-is, -es, -e, -er||-es||hó||hóe|
Nouns of the fourth declension end with "-es" but take different endings than those of the third; they are feminine with the sole exception of dies (day) which is masculine.
|Fourth Declension||Singular||Plural||Example (hó _____ (m) - the _____)|
1st & 2nd Declension Adjectives
3rd Declension Adjectives
Adverbs of 1st & 2nd Declension Adjectives
Adverbs Using -iter
Reflexive Possessive & Possessive Pronouns
Verbs conjugate in accordance with one of the four families.
All first conjugation verbs present stem ends in -a, infinitive in -are.